The science of Jawari 2

Wim van der Meer and I made a series of exploratory sonograms and spectrograms to give a visual aid to help us understand these somewhat complex processes.This can also be seen by using a simple overtone analyzer (see upper photo), representing a recording from a tanpura with a medium quality jawari. The lower photo is the same bridge with the addition of the jiva. A very clear difference can be seen, and indeed proves Ramans observations that the jiva enhances the spectrum of overtones. This can be clearly heard with the naked ear.

Enhancing the overtones

As seen when comparing the two photos, inharmonics, which have no relation to the basic tonic or fundamental, are also produced. C.V.Raman claims this is due to the string vibrating over a curved bridge, therefore having no definite, but a shifting point of contact. However B.C.Deva claims it's not only the lengthening and shortening of the string's length that cause this phenomenon, but the fact that the jiva actually lifts the string from the bridge. Hereby, in that instant, it completely causes a damping of the vibration. This gives the tanpura its uniqueness among the flat bridge lutes of India. In practice, the inharmonics are rarely heard because they are mostly weak or are masked over by the stronger tones.

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